Header

UZH-Logo

Maintenance Infos

Cognitive Impairment in Cocaine Users is Drug-Induced but Partially Reversible: Evidence from a Longitudinal Study


Vonmoos, Matthias; Hulka, Lea M; Preller, Katrin H; Minder, Franziska; Baumgartner, Markus R; Quednow, Boris B (2014). Cognitive Impairment in Cocaine Users is Drug-Induced but Partially Reversible: Evidence from a Longitudinal Study. Neuropsychopharmacology, 39(9):2200-2210.

Abstract

Cocaine users consistently display cognitive impairments. However, it is still unknown whether these impairments are cocaine-induced and if they are reversible. Therefore, we examined the relation between changing intensity of cocaine use and the development of cognitive functioning within 1 year. The present data were collected as part of the longitudinal Zurich Cocaine Cognition Study (ZuCo(2)St). Forty-eight psychostimulant-naive controls and 57 cocaine users (19 with increased, 19 with decreased, and 19 with unchanged cocaine use) were eligible for analysis. At baseline and after a 1-year follow-up, cognitive performance was measured by a global cognitive index and four neuropsychological domains (attention, working memory, declarative memory, and executive functions), calculated from 13 parameters of a broad neuropsychological test battery. Intensity of cocaine use was objectively determined by quantitative 6-month hair toxicology at both test sessions. Substantially increased cocaine use within 1 year (mean +297%) was associated with reduced cognitive performance primarily in working memory. By contrast, decreased cocaine use (-72%) was linked to small cognitive improvements in all four domains. Importantly, users who ceased taking cocaine seemed to recover completely, attaining a cognitive performance level similar to that of the control group. However, recovery of working memory was correlated with age of onset of cocaine use-early-onset users showed hampered recovery. These longitudinal data suggest that cognitive impairment might be partially cocaine-induced but also reversible within 1 year, at least after moderate exposure. The reversibility indicates that neuroplastic adaptations underlie cognitive changes in cocaine users, which are potentially modifiable in psychotherapeutical or pharmacological interventions.

Abstract

Cocaine users consistently display cognitive impairments. However, it is still unknown whether these impairments are cocaine-induced and if they are reversible. Therefore, we examined the relation between changing intensity of cocaine use and the development of cognitive functioning within 1 year. The present data were collected as part of the longitudinal Zurich Cocaine Cognition Study (ZuCo(2)St). Forty-eight psychostimulant-naive controls and 57 cocaine users (19 with increased, 19 with decreased, and 19 with unchanged cocaine use) were eligible for analysis. At baseline and after a 1-year follow-up, cognitive performance was measured by a global cognitive index and four neuropsychological domains (attention, working memory, declarative memory, and executive functions), calculated from 13 parameters of a broad neuropsychological test battery. Intensity of cocaine use was objectively determined by quantitative 6-month hair toxicology at both test sessions. Substantially increased cocaine use within 1 year (mean +297%) was associated with reduced cognitive performance primarily in working memory. By contrast, decreased cocaine use (-72%) was linked to small cognitive improvements in all four domains. Importantly, users who ceased taking cocaine seemed to recover completely, attaining a cognitive performance level similar to that of the control group. However, recovery of working memory was correlated with age of onset of cocaine use-early-onset users showed hampered recovery. These longitudinal data suggest that cognitive impairment might be partially cocaine-induced but also reversible within 1 year, at least after moderate exposure. The reversibility indicates that neuroplastic adaptations underlie cognitive changes in cocaine users, which are potentially modifiable in psychotherapeutical or pharmacological interventions.

Statistics

Citations

25 citations in Web of Science®
29 citations in Scopus®
Google Scholar™

Altmetrics

Downloads

42 downloads since deposited on 21 May 2014
14 downloads since 12 months
Detailed statistics

Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:04 Faculty of Medicine > Psychiatric University Hospital Zurich > Clinic for Psychiatry, Psychotherapy, and Psychosomatics
04 Faculty of Medicine > Institute of Legal Medicine
Dewey Decimal Classification:340 Law
610 Medicine & health
Language:English
Date:2014
Deposited On:21 May 2014 15:17
Last Modified:03 Aug 2017 23:17
Publisher:Nature Publishing Group
ISSN:0006-3223
Free access at:PubMed ID. An embargo period may apply.
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1038/npp.2014.71
PubMed ID:24651468

Download

Preview Icon on Download
Preview
Content: Accepted Version
Filetype: PDF
Size: 287kB
View at publisher

TrendTerms

TrendTerms displays relevant terms of the abstract of this publication and related documents on a map. The terms and their relations were extracted from ZORA using word statistics. Their timelines are taken from ZORA as well. The bubble size of a term is proportional to the number of documents where the term occurs. Red, orange, yellow and green colors are used for terms that occur in the current document; red indicates high interlinkedness of a term with other terms, orange, yellow and green decreasing interlinkedness. Blue is used for terms that have a relation with the terms in this document, but occur in other documents.
You can navigate and zoom the map. Mouse-hovering a term displays its timeline, clicking it yields the associated documents.

Author Collaborations