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Processing of MEMPHIS Ka-Band Multibaseline Interferometric SAR Data: From Raw Data to Digital Surface Models


Magnard, Christophe; Frioud, Max; Small, David; Brehm, Thorsten; Essen, Helmut; Meier, Erich (2014). Processing of MEMPHIS Ka-Band Multibaseline Interferometric SAR Data: From Raw Data to Digital Surface Models. IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Applied Earth Observations and Remote Sensing, 7(7):2927-2941.

Abstract

MEMPHIS is an experimental millimeter-wave synthetic aperture radar (SAR) system that acquires cross-track multibaseline interferometric data at high resolution in a single pass, using four receive horns. In this paper, we present the SAR system and navigation data, and propose a processing chain from the raw data input to a digital surface model (DSM) output. This processing chain includes full bandwidth reconstruction of the stepped- frequency SAR data, azimuth focusing with an Extended Omega-K algorithm, generation of interferograms for each available baseline, phase unwrapping using the multibaseline data, and phase- to-height conversion. The hardware and processing chain were validated through the analysis of experimental Ka-band data. The SAR image resolution was measured with point targets and found to be    and     coarser than the theoretical value in range and azimuth, respectively. The geolocation accuracy was typically better than 0.1 m in range and 0.2 m in azimuth. Observed depression angle- dependent interferometric phase errors were successfully removed using a correction function derived from the InSAR data. Investiga- tion of the interferometric phase noise showed the utility of a multi- baseline antenna setup; the number of looks and filter size used for the DSM generation were also derived from this analysis. The results showed that in grassland areas, the height difference between the ~2 m-resolution InSAR DSMs and the reference ALS models was 0 ±0.25 m.

Abstract

MEMPHIS is an experimental millimeter-wave synthetic aperture radar (SAR) system that acquires cross-track multibaseline interferometric data at high resolution in a single pass, using four receive horns. In this paper, we present the SAR system and navigation data, and propose a processing chain from the raw data input to a digital surface model (DSM) output. This processing chain includes full bandwidth reconstruction of the stepped- frequency SAR data, azimuth focusing with an Extended Omega-K algorithm, generation of interferograms for each available baseline, phase unwrapping using the multibaseline data, and phase- to-height conversion. The hardware and processing chain were validated through the analysis of experimental Ka-band data. The SAR image resolution was measured with point targets and found to be    and     coarser than the theoretical value in range and azimuth, respectively. The geolocation accuracy was typically better than 0.1 m in range and 0.2 m in azimuth. Observed depression angle- dependent interferometric phase errors were successfully removed using a correction function derived from the InSAR data. Investiga- tion of the interferometric phase noise showed the utility of a multi- baseline antenna setup; the number of looks and filter size used for the DSM generation were also derived from this analysis. The results showed that in grassland areas, the height difference between the ~2 m-resolution InSAR DSMs and the reference ALS models was 0 ±0.25 m.

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Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:07 Faculty of Science > Institute of Geography
Dewey Decimal Classification:910 Geography & travel
Language:English
Date:2014
Deposited On:21 May 2014 14:36
Last Modified:08 Dec 2017 05:47
Publisher:Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers
ISSN:1939-1404
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1109/JSTARS.2014.2315896

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