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Cryo-electron tomography reveals four-membrane architecture of the Plasmodium apicoplast


Lemgruber, Leandro; Kudryashev, Mikhail; Dekiwadia, Chaitali; Riglar, David T; Baum, Jake; Stahlberg, Henning; Ralph, Stuart A; Frischknecht, Friedrich (2013). Cryo-electron tomography reveals four-membrane architecture of the Plasmodium apicoplast. Malaria Journal, 12:25.

Abstract

Background: The apicoplast is a plastid organelle derived from a secondary endosymbiosis, containing biosynthetic pathways essential for the survival of apicomplexan parasites. The Toxoplasma apicoplast clearly possesses four membranes but in related Plasmodium spp. the apicoplast has variably been reported to have either three or four membranes. Methods: Cryo-electron tomography was employed to image merozoites of Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium berghei frozen in their near-native state. Three-dimensional reconstructions revealed the number of apicoplast membranes and the association of the apicoplast with other organelles. Routine transmission electron microscopy of parasites preserved by high-pressure freezing followed by freeze substitution techniques was also used to analyse apicoplast morphology. Results: Cryo-preserved parasites showed clearly four membranes surrounding the apicoplast. A wider gap between the second and third apicoplast membranes was frequently observed. The apicoplast was found in close proximity to the nucleus and to the rhoptries. The apicoplast matrix showed ribosome-sized particles and membranous whorls. Conclusions: The Plasmodium apicoplast possesses four membranes, as do the apicoplasts of other apicomplexan parasites. This is consistent with a four-membraned secondary endosymbiotic plastid ancestor.

Abstract

Background: The apicoplast is a plastid organelle derived from a secondary endosymbiosis, containing biosynthetic pathways essential for the survival of apicomplexan parasites. The Toxoplasma apicoplast clearly possesses four membranes but in related Plasmodium spp. the apicoplast has variably been reported to have either three or four membranes. Methods: Cryo-electron tomography was employed to image merozoites of Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium berghei frozen in their near-native state. Three-dimensional reconstructions revealed the number of apicoplast membranes and the association of the apicoplast with other organelles. Routine transmission electron microscopy of parasites preserved by high-pressure freezing followed by freeze substitution techniques was also used to analyse apicoplast morphology. Results: Cryo-preserved parasites showed clearly four membranes surrounding the apicoplast. A wider gap between the second and third apicoplast membranes was frequently observed. The apicoplast was found in close proximity to the nucleus and to the rhoptries. The apicoplast matrix showed ribosome-sized particles and membranous whorls. Conclusions: The Plasmodium apicoplast possesses four membranes, as do the apicoplasts of other apicomplexan parasites. This is consistent with a four-membraned secondary endosymbiotic plastid ancestor.

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Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:Special Collections > SystemsX.ch
Special Collections > SystemsX.ch > Research, Technology and Development Projects > CINA
Special Collections > SystemsX.ch > Research, Technology and Development Projects
Dewey Decimal Classification:570 Life sciences; biology
Language:English
Date:2013
Deposited On:10 Jul 2014 12:33
Last Modified:08 Dec 2017 06:25
Publisher:BioMed Central
ISSN:1475-2875
Free access at:PubMed ID. An embargo period may apply.
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1186/1475-2875-12-25
PubMed ID:23331966

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