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Dimerelloid rhynchonellide brachiopods in the Lower Jurassic of the Engadine (Canton Graubünden, National Park, Switzerland)


Sulser, H; Furrer, H (2008). Dimerelloid rhynchonellide brachiopods in the Lower Jurassic of the Engadine (Canton Graubünden, National Park, Switzerland). Swiss Journal of Geosciences, 101(1):203-222.

Abstract

New brachiopods (Dimerelloidea, Rhynchonellida) from Lower Jurassic (?lower Hettangian) hemipelagic sediments of the Swiss National Park in south-eastern Engadine are described: Sulcirostra doesseggeri sp. nov. and Carapezzia engadinensis sp. nov. Sulcirostra doesseggeri is externally similar to S. fuggeri (Frauscher 1883), a dubious species, that could not be included in a comparative study, because relevant samples no longer exist. A single specimen was tentatively assigned to Sulcirostra ?zitteli (Böse 1894) by comparison of its external morphology with S. zitteli from the type locality. The partly silicified brachiopods are associated with sponge spicules, radiolarians and crinoid ossicles. Macrofossils are rare: dictyid sponges, gastropods, bivalves, crustaceans, shark teeth and scales of an actinopterygian fish. The Lower Jurassic sediments (Alpisella beds, a basal member of the Allgäu Formation) preserving the brachiopods belong to the Ortler nappe (Upper Austroalpine nappes). The exact age of the Alpisella beds is not known, as index fossils are lacking. Their stratigraphic position above the Rhaetian Kössen Formation and below the ammonite-dated Trupchun beds suggests a very Early Jurassic, probably early Hettangian age for the new brachiopod fauna. The new species of Sulcirostra and Carapezzia are confined to a very small geographic area, a peculiarity also observed in other Early Jurassic dimerelloid brachiopods. These brachiopods presumably adapted to current-dominated submarine highs, where their shells could not accumulate, except when trapped in submarine cavities or re-deposited in submarine fans. Transport by turbidity currents is suggested for the Early Jurassic dimerelloids from the Engadine. Problems with the generic definition of Sulcirostra and the higher rank classification of Carapezzia are discussed.

Abstract

New brachiopods (Dimerelloidea, Rhynchonellida) from Lower Jurassic (?lower Hettangian) hemipelagic sediments of the Swiss National Park in south-eastern Engadine are described: Sulcirostra doesseggeri sp. nov. and Carapezzia engadinensis sp. nov. Sulcirostra doesseggeri is externally similar to S. fuggeri (Frauscher 1883), a dubious species, that could not be included in a comparative study, because relevant samples no longer exist. A single specimen was tentatively assigned to Sulcirostra ?zitteli (Böse 1894) by comparison of its external morphology with S. zitteli from the type locality. The partly silicified brachiopods are associated with sponge spicules, radiolarians and crinoid ossicles. Macrofossils are rare: dictyid sponges, gastropods, bivalves, crustaceans, shark teeth and scales of an actinopterygian fish. The Lower Jurassic sediments (Alpisella beds, a basal member of the Allgäu Formation) preserving the brachiopods belong to the Ortler nappe (Upper Austroalpine nappes). The exact age of the Alpisella beds is not known, as index fossils are lacking. Their stratigraphic position above the Rhaetian Kössen Formation and below the ammonite-dated Trupchun beds suggests a very Early Jurassic, probably early Hettangian age for the new brachiopod fauna. The new species of Sulcirostra and Carapezzia are confined to a very small geographic area, a peculiarity also observed in other Early Jurassic dimerelloid brachiopods. These brachiopods presumably adapted to current-dominated submarine highs, where their shells could not accumulate, except when trapped in submarine cavities or re-deposited in submarine fans. Transport by turbidity currents is suggested for the Early Jurassic dimerelloids from the Engadine. Problems with the generic definition of Sulcirostra and the higher rank classification of Carapezzia are discussed.

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Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:07 Faculty of Science > Paleontological Institute and Museum
Dewey Decimal Classification:560 Fossils & prehistoric life
Language:English
Date:2008
Deposited On:12 Feb 2009 16:00
Last Modified:05 Apr 2016 12:48
Publisher:Birkhäuser
ISSN:1661-8726
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1007/s00015-008-1250-8

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