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Differential regulation of TGF-β-induced, ALK-5-mediated VEGF release by SMAD2/3 versus SMAD1/5/8 signaling in glioblastoma.


Seystahl, K; Tritschler, I; Szabo, E; Tabatabai, G; Weller, M (2015). Differential regulation of TGF-β-induced, ALK-5-mediated VEGF release by SMAD2/3 versus SMAD1/5/8 signaling in glioblastoma. Neuro-Oncology, 17(2):254-265.

Abstract

BACKGROUND The transforming growth factor (TGF)-β and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) pathways have a major role in the pathogenesis of glioblastoma, notably immunosuppression, migration, and angiogenesis, but their interactions have remained poorly understood.
METHODS We characterized TGF-β pathway activity in 9 long-term glioma cell lines (LTCs) and 4 glioma-initiating cell lines (GICs) in relation to constitutive and exogenous TGF-β-induced VEGF release. Results were validated using The Cancer Genome Atlas transcriptomics data.
RESULTS Glioma cells exhibit heterogeneous patterns of constitutive TGF-β pathway activation reflected by phosphorylation not only of SMAD2 and SMAD3 but also of SMAD1/5/8. Constitutive TGF-β pathway activity depends on the type I TGF-β receptor, ALK-5, and accounts for up to 69% of constitutive VEGF release, which is positively regulated by SMAD2/3 and negatively regulated by SMAD1/5/8 signaling in a cell line-specific manner. Exogenous TGF-β induces VEGF release in most cell lines in a SMAD- and ALK-5-dependent manner. There is no correlation between the fold induction of VEGF secretion induced by TGF-β compared with hypoxia. The role of SMAD5 signaling is highly context and cell-line dependent with a VEGF inhibitory effect at low TGF-β and pSMAD2 levels and a stimulatory effect when TGF-β is abundant.
CONCLUSIONS TGF-β regulates VEGF release by glioma cells in an ALK-5-dependent manner involving SMAD2, SMAD3, and SMAD1/5/8 signaling. This crosstalk between the TGF-β and VEGF pathways may open up new avenues of biomarker-driven exploratory clinical trials focusing on the microenvironment in glioblastoma.

Abstract

BACKGROUND The transforming growth factor (TGF)-β and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) pathways have a major role in the pathogenesis of glioblastoma, notably immunosuppression, migration, and angiogenesis, but their interactions have remained poorly understood.
METHODS We characterized TGF-β pathway activity in 9 long-term glioma cell lines (LTCs) and 4 glioma-initiating cell lines (GICs) in relation to constitutive and exogenous TGF-β-induced VEGF release. Results were validated using The Cancer Genome Atlas transcriptomics data.
RESULTS Glioma cells exhibit heterogeneous patterns of constitutive TGF-β pathway activation reflected by phosphorylation not only of SMAD2 and SMAD3 but also of SMAD1/5/8. Constitutive TGF-β pathway activity depends on the type I TGF-β receptor, ALK-5, and accounts for up to 69% of constitutive VEGF release, which is positively regulated by SMAD2/3 and negatively regulated by SMAD1/5/8 signaling in a cell line-specific manner. Exogenous TGF-β induces VEGF release in most cell lines in a SMAD- and ALK-5-dependent manner. There is no correlation between the fold induction of VEGF secretion induced by TGF-β compared with hypoxia. The role of SMAD5 signaling is highly context and cell-line dependent with a VEGF inhibitory effect at low TGF-β and pSMAD2 levels and a stimulatory effect when TGF-β is abundant.
CONCLUSIONS TGF-β regulates VEGF release by glioma cells in an ALK-5-dependent manner involving SMAD2, SMAD3, and SMAD1/5/8 signaling. This crosstalk between the TGF-β and VEGF pathways may open up new avenues of biomarker-driven exploratory clinical trials focusing on the microenvironment in glioblastoma.

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Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:04 Faculty of Medicine > University Hospital Zurich > Clinic for Neurology
Dewey Decimal Classification:610 Medicine & health
Date:2015
Deposited On:15 Sep 2014 13:55
Last Modified:08 Dec 2017 07:09
Publisher:Oxford University Press
ISSN:1522-8517
Additional Information:This is a pre-copyedited, author-produced PDF of an article accepted for publication in Neuro-Oncology following peer review. The definitive publisher-authenticated version is available online at: DOI 10.1093/neuonc/nou218
Free access at:PubMed ID. An embargo period may apply.
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1093/neuonc/nou218
PubMed ID:25165192

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