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Genetics of preparation and response control in ADHD: the role of DRD4 and DAT1


Albrecht, Björn; Brandeis, Daniel; Uebel-von Sandersleben, Henrik; Valko, Lilian; Heinrich, Hartmut; Xu, Xiaohui; Drechsler, Renate; Heise, Alexander; Kuntsi, Jonna; Müller, Ueli C; Asherson, Philip; Steinhausen, Hans-Christoph; Rothenberger, Aribert; Banaschewski, Tobias (2014). Genetics of preparation and response control in ADHD: the role of DRD4 and DAT1. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 55(8):914-923.

Abstract

BACKGROUND
Difficulties with performance and brain activity related to attentional orienting (Cue-P3), cognitive or response preparation (Cue-CNV) and inhibitory response control (Nogo-P3) during tasks tapping executive functions are familial in ADHD and may represent endophenotypes. The aim of this study was to clarify the impact of dopamine receptor D4 (DRD4) and dopamine transporter (DAT1) gene polymorphisms on these processes in ADHD and control children.

METHODS
Behavioural and electrophysiological parameters from cued continuous performance tests with low and high attentional load were assessed in boys with ADHD combined type (N = 94) and controls without family history of ADHD (N = 31). Both groups were split for the presence of at least one DRD4 7-repeat allele and the DAT1 10-6 haplotype.

RESULTS
Children with ADHD showed diminished performance and lower Cue-P3, CNV and Nogo-P3 amplitudes. Children with DRD4 7R showed similar performance problems and lower Cue-P3 and CNV, but Nogo-P3 was not reduced. Children with the DAT1 10-6 haplotype had no difficulties with performance or Cue-P3 and CNV, but contrary to expectations increased Nogo-P3. There were no Genotype by ADHD interactions.

CONCLUSIONS
This study detected specific effects of DRD4 7R on performance and brain activity related to attentional orienting and response preparation, while DAT1 10-6 was associated with elevated brain activity related to inhibitory response control, which potentially compensates increased impulsivity. As these genotype effects were additive to the impact of ADHD, the current results indicate that DRD4 and DAT1 polymorphisms are functionally relevant risk factors for ADHD and presumably other disorders sharing these endophenotypes.

Abstract

BACKGROUND
Difficulties with performance and brain activity related to attentional orienting (Cue-P3), cognitive or response preparation (Cue-CNV) and inhibitory response control (Nogo-P3) during tasks tapping executive functions are familial in ADHD and may represent endophenotypes. The aim of this study was to clarify the impact of dopamine receptor D4 (DRD4) and dopamine transporter (DAT1) gene polymorphisms on these processes in ADHD and control children.

METHODS
Behavioural and electrophysiological parameters from cued continuous performance tests with low and high attentional load were assessed in boys with ADHD combined type (N = 94) and controls without family history of ADHD (N = 31). Both groups were split for the presence of at least one DRD4 7-repeat allele and the DAT1 10-6 haplotype.

RESULTS
Children with ADHD showed diminished performance and lower Cue-P3, CNV and Nogo-P3 amplitudes. Children with DRD4 7R showed similar performance problems and lower Cue-P3 and CNV, but Nogo-P3 was not reduced. Children with the DAT1 10-6 haplotype had no difficulties with performance or Cue-P3 and CNV, but contrary to expectations increased Nogo-P3. There were no Genotype by ADHD interactions.

CONCLUSIONS
This study detected specific effects of DRD4 7R on performance and brain activity related to attentional orienting and response preparation, while DAT1 10-6 was associated with elevated brain activity related to inhibitory response control, which potentially compensates increased impulsivity. As these genotype effects were additive to the impact of ADHD, the current results indicate that DRD4 and DAT1 polymorphisms are functionally relevant risk factors for ADHD and presumably other disorders sharing these endophenotypes.

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Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:04 Faculty of Medicine > Psychiatric University Hospital Zurich > Center for Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
04 Faculty of Medicine > Neuroscience Center Zurich
04 Faculty of Medicine > Center for Integrative Human Physiology
Dewey Decimal Classification:570 Life sciences; biology
610 Medicine & health
Language:English
Date:August 2014
Deposited On:30 Oct 2014 13:52
Last Modified:05 Apr 2016 18:27
Publisher:Wiley-Blackwell Publishing, Inc.
ISSN:0021-9630
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1111/jcpp.12212
PubMed ID:24521003

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