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Risk of diabetes in children and adolescents exposed to antipsychotics: a nationwide 12-year case-control study


Nielsen, René Ernst; Laursen, Mathilde Frahm; Vernal, Ditte Lammers; Bisgaard, Charlotte; Jakobsen, Helle; Steinhausen, Hans-Christoph; Correll, Christoph U (2014). Risk of diabetes in children and adolescents exposed to antipsychotics: a nationwide 12-year case-control study. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 53(9):971-979.e6.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE
Antipsychotics are associated with weight gain and diabetes. The risk and rate of diabetes in children and adolescents treated with antipsychotics is unclear.

METHOD
A longitudinal register linkage case-control study of diabetes in all psychiatric patients aged <18 years in Denmark was performed from January 1999 through the end of June 2010. Patients with and without antipsychotic exposure were compared regarding the occurrence of type 2 diabetes, defined as the prescription of oral antidiabetic medication. Regression analyses with type 2 diabetes as the dependent variable were conducted with sex, age, and diagnoses as covariates.

RESULTS
We compared the risk of diabetes in 48,299 psychiatrically ill youth. Of 7,253 youth exposed to antipsychotics, 52 (0.72%; 95% CI = 0.52% - 0.91%) developed type 2 diabetes. Of 41,046 youth without exposure to antipsychotics, 111 (0.27%; 95% CI = 0.22% - 0.32%) developed type 2 diabetes. In a 25,033 + 16,013 logistic regression analysis, type 2 diabetes development was associated with antipsychotic drug exposure (odds ratio [OR] = 1.60; 95% CI = 1.08 - 2.36, p < .05) female sex, (OR = 4.48; 95% CI = 2.90 - 6.91, p < 0.001) and older age at first psychiatric diagnosis (OR = 1.19; 95% CI = 1.12 - 1.27, p < 0.001), but not with psychiatric diagnosis. In a Cox-regression analysis, shorter time to type 2 diabetes onset was associated with female sex (Hazard Ratio (HR) = 4.83; 95% CI = 3.05-7.66, p = 0.001), and older age at first psychiatric diagnosis (HR = 1.19; 95% CI = 1.12-1.28, p = 0.001), while antipsychotic exposure (HR) = 1.41; 95% CI = 0.92-2.16, p = 0.11) trended towards increasing the rate of diabetes.

CONCLUSION
Antipsychotic treatment, female sex, and older age at psychiatric diagnosis were associated with a significantly more frequent type 2 diabetes onset in children and adolescents. Strict indications for antipsychotic treatment and routine cardiometabolic monitoring are crucial.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE
Antipsychotics are associated with weight gain and diabetes. The risk and rate of diabetes in children and adolescents treated with antipsychotics is unclear.

METHOD
A longitudinal register linkage case-control study of diabetes in all psychiatric patients aged <18 years in Denmark was performed from January 1999 through the end of June 2010. Patients with and without antipsychotic exposure were compared regarding the occurrence of type 2 diabetes, defined as the prescription of oral antidiabetic medication. Regression analyses with type 2 diabetes as the dependent variable were conducted with sex, age, and diagnoses as covariates.

RESULTS
We compared the risk of diabetes in 48,299 psychiatrically ill youth. Of 7,253 youth exposed to antipsychotics, 52 (0.72%; 95% CI = 0.52% - 0.91%) developed type 2 diabetes. Of 41,046 youth without exposure to antipsychotics, 111 (0.27%; 95% CI = 0.22% - 0.32%) developed type 2 diabetes. In a 25,033 + 16,013 logistic regression analysis, type 2 diabetes development was associated with antipsychotic drug exposure (odds ratio [OR] = 1.60; 95% CI = 1.08 - 2.36, p < .05) female sex, (OR = 4.48; 95% CI = 2.90 - 6.91, p < 0.001) and older age at first psychiatric diagnosis (OR = 1.19; 95% CI = 1.12 - 1.27, p < 0.001), but not with psychiatric diagnosis. In a Cox-regression analysis, shorter time to type 2 diabetes onset was associated with female sex (Hazard Ratio (HR) = 4.83; 95% CI = 3.05-7.66, p = 0.001), and older age at first psychiatric diagnosis (HR = 1.19; 95% CI = 1.12-1.28, p = 0.001), while antipsychotic exposure (HR) = 1.41; 95% CI = 0.92-2.16, p = 0.11) trended towards increasing the rate of diabetes.

CONCLUSION
Antipsychotic treatment, female sex, and older age at psychiatric diagnosis were associated with a significantly more frequent type 2 diabetes onset in children and adolescents. Strict indications for antipsychotic treatment and routine cardiometabolic monitoring are crucial.

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Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:04 Faculty of Medicine > Psychiatric University Hospital Zurich > Center for Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
Dewey Decimal Classification:610 Medicine & health
Language:English
Date:September 2014
Deposited On:30 Oct 2014 14:05
Last Modified:05 Apr 2016 18:27
Publisher:Elsevier
ISSN:0890-8567
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jaac.2014.04.023
PubMed ID:25151420

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