Multiple sclerosis (MS) is the most common inflammatory, demyelinating, neurodegenerative disorder of the central nervous system (CNS). It is widely considered a T-cell mediated autoimmune disease that develops in genetically susceptible individuals, possibly under the influence of certain environmental trigger factors. The invasion of autoreactive CD4+ T-cells into the CNS is thought to be a central step that initiates the disease. Several other cell types, including CD8+ T-cells, B-cells and phagocytes appear to be involved in causing inflammation and eventually neurodegeneration. But inflammation is not entirely deleterious in MS. Evidence has accumulated in the recent years that show the importance of regulatory immune mechanisms which restrain tissue damage and initiate regeneration. More insight into the beneficial aspects of neuroinflammation might allow us to develop new treatment strategies for this enigmatic disease.