BACKGROUND The relationship between perceived motivational climate and athletes' well-being may depend on personal resource factors such as self-efficacy beliefs which are expected to shield individuals from negative outcomes when environmental factors may not suffice to secure positive outcomes. We explored the roles of self-efficacy and collective efficacy by investigating whether they operated either as moderators or as mediators within this relationship. METHODS Study 1 was carried out among 56 athletes (basketball, volleyball, or soccer players), with a two-week follow-up, whereas Study 2 was conducted among 113 soccer players, with three measurement points (baseline, two-month follow-up, and nine-month follow-up). Their satisfaction with sport skills and performance served as an index of well-being. RESULTS The findings of Study 1 indicated that general self-efficacy moderated the relationship between task-oriented motivational climate and satisfaction. Task-oriented climate predicted satisfaction only among athletes with low self-efficacy. Study 2 showed that self-efficacy moderated the link between task-oriented motivational climate and satisfaction at nine-month follow-up. In contrast, collective efficacy at two-month follow-up mediated the relationship between perceived motivational climate at baseline and satisfaction at nine-month follow-up. CONCLUSIONS Athletes are at risk for lower well-being if they perceive a negative task-involving climate and if they harbor either low general self-efficacy or low personal-barrier self-efficacy.