Progress in video technologies and developments in theories of learning have lead to a surge of interest in the role of classroom culture in schooling. The studies presented in this special issue of the IJER on analyzing mathematics classroom cultures and practices contribute to our knowledge on the role of beliefs and norms in classrooms and the interrelationship between classroom culture, student learning, and the advancement of teaching. In this final section these papers are discussed with respect to fundamental questions on the nature of the units of analysis chosen to sample the practices recorded on video and to describe and identify teaching patterns. Such issues are of pivotal importance, not only from a methodological point of view, but also because they carry theoretical and practical implications. What is still largely missing in research on classroom cultures are studies that combine to closely look at individual learners as well as at the social processes of participation in classroom activities within institutional settings.