PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Cell based muscle tissue engineering carries the potential to revert the functional loss of muscle tissue caused by disease and trauma. Although muscle tissue can be bioengineered using various precursor cells, major limitations still remain.
RECENT FINDINGS: In the last decades several cellular pathways playing a crucial role in muscle tissue regeneration have been described. These pathways can be influenced by external stimuli and they not only orchestrate the regenerative process after physiologic wear and muscle trauma, but also play an important part in aging and maintaining the stem cell niche, which is required to maintain long-term muscle function.
SUMMARY: In this review article we will highlight possible new avenues using external physical and biochemical stimulation in order to optimize muscle bioengineering.