Effects of Omega-3 fatty acids (n-3 FA) in particular on the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD) are of major interest. Many experimental studies reported their anti-inflammatory, anti-thrombotic and anti-atherosclerotic properties and suggested favourable effects on the prevention of CVD. While the majority of former studies showed a benefit of n-3 FA acid intake, recent clinical trials using n-3 supplements on top of established medication and prudent nutrition did not confirm these findings. The conflicting data may be due to several factors such as the selection of study population with different sizes or characteristics as well as choosing different doses or types of n-3 FA. The most recent meta-analyses observed clear benefits of fish consumption, but not of n-3 capsules intake. Furthermore, a nutrition rich in plant-derived n-3 FA alpha-linolenic acid has been found to have beneficial effects on the development of cardio- and cerebrovascular diseases.