OBJECTIVE: Systematically identify preoperative clinical risk factors for incident postoperative delirium in individuals undergoing hip fracture repair in order to guide clinicians in identifying high risk patients at admission.
METHODS: This is a systematic review of prospective observational studies with estimation of association between preoperative risk factors and incident postoperative delirium in multivariate models. Electronic searches were conducted in PubMed, Embase, PsycINFO, CINAHL, Cochrane Library, Proquest Dissertations and Theses, and WorldCatDissertations. Hand searches were conducted in selected journals and their supplements.
RESULTS: Search yielded 6380 titles and abstracts from electronic databases and 72 titles from hand searches, and 10 studies met inclusion criteria. The following risk factors were significant in bivariate models: cognitive impairment, age, gender, institutionalization, functional impairment, body mass index (BMI), albumin, comorbidities, American Society of Anesthesiologist classification, acute medical conditions, polypharmacy, and vision impairment. Among all of these risk factors, cognitive impairment most consistently remained statistically significant after adjusting for other risk factors in multivariate models, followed by BMI/albumin and multiple comorbidities.
CONCLUSION: In our systematic review, cognitive impairment was one of the strongest preoperative risk factors for postoperative delirium after hip fracture surgery. Preoperative cognitive assessment may be one of the most useful methods of identifying those who are at high risk for postoperative delirium and prioritizing delivery of delirium prevention measures.