This chapter reviews the current research on gene-environment interactions (G × E) with regard to human violence. Findings are summarized from both behavioral and molecular genetic studies that have investigated the interplay of genetic and environmental factors in terms of influencing violence-related behavior. Together, these studies reveal promising evidence that genetic factors combine with environmental influences to impact on the development of violent behavior and related phenotypes. G × E have been identified for a number of candidate genes implicated in violence. Moreover, the reviewed G × E were found to extend to a broad range of environmental characteristics, including both adverse and favorable conditions. As has been the case with other G × E research, findings have been mixed, with considerable heterogeneity between studies. Lack of replication together with serious methodological limitations remains a major challenge for drawing definitive conclusions about the nature of violence-related G × E. In order to fulfill its potential, it is recommended that future G × E research needs to shift its focus to dissecting the neural mechanisms and the underlying pathophysiological pathways by which genetic variation may influence differential susceptibility to environmental exposures.