Dating back to the Apollo and Skylab missions, it has been reported that astronauts suffered from bacterial and viral infections during space flight or after returning to Earth. Blood analyses revealed strongly reduced capability of human lymphocytes to become active upon mitogenic stimulation. Since then, a large number of in vitro studies on human immune cells have been conducted in space, in parabolic flights, and in ground-based facilities. It became obvious that microgravity affects cell morphology and important cellular functions. Observed changes include cell proliferation, the cytoskeleton, signal transduction and gene expression. This review gives an overview of the current knowledge of T cell regulation under altered gravity conditions obtained by in vitro studies with special emphasis on the cell culture conditions used. We propose that future in vitro experiments should follow rigorous standardized cell culture conditions, which allows better comparison of the results obtained in different flight- and ground-based experiment platforms.