OBJECTIVES: To develop a urodynamic model incorporating external urethral sphincter (EUS) electromyography (EMG) in awake rats.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Bladder catheters and EUS EMG electrodes were implanted in female Sprague Dawley rats. Assessments were performed in awake, lightly restrained animals on postoperative day 12-14. Measurements were repeated in the same animal on day 16 under urethane anesthesia. Urodynamics and EUS EMG were performed simultaneously. In addition, serum creatinine and bladder histology was assessed.
RESULTS: No significant differences in urodynamic parameters were found between bladder catheter only versus bladder catheter and EUS EMG electrode groups. Urethane anesthesia evoked prominent changes in both urodynamic parameters and EUS EMG. Serum creatinine was within the normal limits in all animals. Bladder weight and bladder wall thickness were significantly increased in both the bladder catheter only and the bladder catheter and EUS EMG group compared to controls.
CONCLUSIONS: Our novel urodynamic model allows repetitive measurements of both bladder and EUS function at different time points in the same animal under fully awake conditions and opens promising avenues to investigate LUTD in a translational approach.