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Parsing early and late modern English corpora


Schneider, Gerold; Lehmann, Hans Martin; Schneider, Peter (2015). Parsing early and late modern English corpora. Literary and Linguistic Computing, 30(3):423-439.

Abstract

We describe, evaluate, and improve the automatic annotation of diachronic corpora at the levels of word-class, lemma, chunks, and dependency syntax. As corpora we use the ARCHER corpus (texts from 1,600 to 2,000) and the ZEN corpus (texts from 1,660 to 1,800). Performance on Modern English is considerably lower than on Present Day English (PDE). We present several methods that improve performance. First we use the spelling normalization tool VARD to map spelling variants to their PDE equivalent, which improves tagging. We investigate the tagging changes that are due to the normalization and observe improvements, deterioration, and missing mappings. We then implement an optimized version, using VARD rules and preprocessing steps to improve normalization. We evaluate the improvement on parsing performance, comparing original text, standard VARD, and our optimized version. Over 90% of the normalization changes lead to improved parsing, and 17.3% of all 422 manually annotated sentences get a net improved parse. As a next step, we adapt the parser’s grammar, add a semantic expectation model and a model for prepositional phrases (PP)-attachment interaction to the parser. These extensions improve parser performance, marginally on PDE, more considerably on earlier texts—2—5% on PP-attachment relations (e.g. from 63.6 to 68.4% and from 70 to 72.9% on 17th century texts). Finally, we briefly outline linguistic applications and give two examples: gerundials and auxiliary verbs in the ZEN corpus, showing that despite high noise levels linguistic signals clearly emerge, opening new possibilities for large-scale research of gradient phenomena in language change.

Abstract

We describe, evaluate, and improve the automatic annotation of diachronic corpora at the levels of word-class, lemma, chunks, and dependency syntax. As corpora we use the ARCHER corpus (texts from 1,600 to 2,000) and the ZEN corpus (texts from 1,660 to 1,800). Performance on Modern English is considerably lower than on Present Day English (PDE). We present several methods that improve performance. First we use the spelling normalization tool VARD to map spelling variants to their PDE equivalent, which improves tagging. We investigate the tagging changes that are due to the normalization and observe improvements, deterioration, and missing mappings. We then implement an optimized version, using VARD rules and preprocessing steps to improve normalization. We evaluate the improvement on parsing performance, comparing original text, standard VARD, and our optimized version. Over 90% of the normalization changes lead to improved parsing, and 17.3% of all 422 manually annotated sentences get a net improved parse. As a next step, we adapt the parser’s grammar, add a semantic expectation model and a model for prepositional phrases (PP)-attachment interaction to the parser. These extensions improve parser performance, marginally on PDE, more considerably on earlier texts—2—5% on PP-attachment relations (e.g. from 63.6 to 68.4% and from 70 to 72.9% on 17th century texts). Finally, we briefly outline linguistic applications and give two examples: gerundials and auxiliary verbs in the ZEN corpus, showing that despite high noise levels linguistic signals clearly emerge, opening new possibilities for large-scale research of gradient phenomena in language change.

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Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:06 Faculty of Arts > English Department
06 Faculty of Arts > Institute of Computational Linguistics
06 Faculty of Arts > Center for Linguistics
Dewey Decimal Classification:000 Computer science, knowledge & systems
820 English & Old English literatures
410 Linguistics
Language:English
Date:2015
Deposited On:20 Feb 2015 10:44
Last Modified:01 Sep 2018 00:03
Publisher:Oxford University Press
ISSN:0268-1145
Additional Information:This is a pre-copyedited, author-produced PDF of an article accepted for publication in Literary and Linguistic Computing following peer review. The definitive publisher-authenticated version [Parsing Early and Late Modern English corpora Gerold Schneider , Hans Martin Lehmann , Peter Schneider, Digital Scholarship in the Humanities Feb 2014, DOI: 10.1093/llc/fqu001 ] is available online at: http://dsh.oxfordjournals.org/content/early/2014/12/02/llc.fqu001.
OA Status:Green
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1093/llc/fqu001

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