Epigenetic marks in mammals are essential to properly control the activity of the genome. They are dynamically regulated during development and adulthood, and can be modulated by environmental factors throughout life. Changes in the epigenetic profile of a cell can be positive and favor the expression of advantageous genes such as those linked to cell signaling and tumor suppression. However, they can also be detrimental and alter the functions of important genes, thereby leading to disease. Recent evidence has further highlighted that some epigenetic marks can be maintained across meiosis and be transmitted to the subsequent generation to reprogram developmental and cellular features. This short review describes current knowledge on the potential impact of epigenetic processes activated by environmental factors on the inheritance of neurobiological disease risk. In addition, the potential adaptive value of epigenetic inheritance, and relevant current and future questions are discussed.