In 1932, the Association of Anaesthetists of Great Britain and Ireland (AAGBI) was founded. Shortly thereafter, anesthesia societies arose in France and Italy. In 1935, the AAGBI established a Diploma in Anaesthetics (DA) and in 1940, Torsten Gordh introduced instruction in anesthesia in Sweden. World War II isolated Europe from anesthetic advances in the US and UK. However training programs began in many European countries soon after 1945, and European countries increasingly recognized anesthesia as a medical specialty.