The paper puts forward a new interpretation of the image of the Cave, that is, the image on human paideia (education) and apaideusia (lack of education). The cause of the apaideusia (R.514a) is identified as a separation from the origin. (1) First, the relation between the Cave, the analogy of the Linie and the Sun is shown not to be a strict parallelism, but a resemblance, which implies sameness and difference. (2) Second, the author argues that the idea of the Good is the necessary condition for the possibility of being, truth and thought. It is the highest theoretical principle and the ultimate foundation of Plato’s ethics. (3) Third, the author describes Plato’s paideia (education) as holistic, that is: It involves the spirited and appetitive part of the soul.