RUVBL1 (RuvB-like1) and RUVBL2 (RuvB-like 2) are integral components of multisubunit protein complexes involved in processes ranging from cellular metabolism, transcription and chromatin remodeling to DNA repair. Here, we show that although RUVBL1 and RUVBL2 are known to form heterodimeric complexes in which they stabilize each other, the subunits separate during cytokinesis. In anaphase-to-telophase transition, RUVBL1 localizes to structures of the mitotic spindle apparatus, where it partially co-localizes with polo-like kinase 1 (PLK1). The ability of PLK1 to phosphorylate RUVBL1-but not RUVBL2-in vitro and their physical association in vivo suggest that this kinase differentially regulates the function of the RuvB-like proteins during mitosis. We further show that siRNA-mediated knock-down of RuvB-like proteins causes severe defects in chromosome alignment and segregation. In addition, we show that the ATPase activity of RUVBL1 is indispensable for cell proliferation. Our data thus demonstrate that RUVBL1 is essential for efficient mitosis and proliferation.