The new archaeological and palaeontological site of Smrcka Lorenz-Abris yielded three dif-ferent leporid species in stratigraphical sequence, mirroring the effect of environmentalchanges and the influence of humans in this area. Lepus timidus is a species with a wideLate Pleistocene distribution, but disappeared in the Vienna Basin at the end of the Pleis-tocene. Lepus europaeus appeared in the Holocene and became dominant in lower altitudesin Austria. Interspecific competition as well as anthropogenic and natural environmen-tal changes are the main factors that caused this replacement. At Smrcka Lorenz-Abris, L.europaeus became dominant around 7000 a BP. This site yielded the last evidence of a moun-tain hare in the Vienna Basin, with a preserved lower jaw that was dated to be from around14,000 a BP. The most recent immigrant is Oryctolagus cuniculus, which was introduced toAustria, and only found in the upper parts of the section.