The aim of this study was to compare the prevalence rate and factor structure of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) based on the diagnostic criteria of the fourth and fifth editions of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV; DSM-5; American Psychiatric Association, , ) in traumatized refugees. There were 134 adult treatment-seeking, severely and multiply traumatized patients from various refugee backgrounds were assessed in their mother tongue using a computerized set of questionnaires consisting of a trauma list, the Posttraumatic Diagnostic Scale, and the new PTSD items that had been suggested by the DSM-5 Task Force of the American Psychiatric Association. Using DSM-IV, 60.4% of participants met diagnostic criteria for PTSD; using DSM-5, only 49.3% fulfilled all criteria (p < .001). Confirmatory factor analysis of DSM-IV and DSM-5 items showed good and comparable model fits. Furthermore, classification functions in the DSM-5 were satisfactory. The new Cluster D symptoms showed relatively high sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive power, and negative predictive power. The DSM-5 symptom structure appears to be applicable to traumatized refugees. Negative alterations in cognitions and mood may be especially useful for clinicians, not only to determine the extent to which an individual refugee is likely to meet criteria for PTSD, but also in providing targets for clinical intervention.