Sperm biology pervades numerous research areas from clinical research to evolutionary biology and animal conservation. Integrating these fields for a better understanding of each is one of the main goals of the Biology of Spermatozoa meeting, a conference held biennially outside of Sheffield in the United Kingdom. This September, at the 11th meeting, scientists from around the globe presented their ongoing research on numerous aspects of reproductive biology, from assisted reproduction in humans and animal conservation through stem cell research and proteomics to sophisticated evolutionary adaptations of ejaculates and female reproductive traits in order to bias paternity toward one or the other male in situations of female promiscuity. Throughout the conference, ethical controversies with reproductive applications (e.g., sperm banking) found their place just as much as novel clinical technologies (e.g., sperm quality assays) or major advances in understanding the mechanisms underlying fundamental processes of postcopulatory sexual selection (e.g., using transgenic animals that produce fluorescently labeled sperm). Across a wide range of different taxa, this meeting has presented a fascinating synthesis of current research and emerging directions in the study of sperm biology.