Styrene is an important industrial chemical that has shown genotoxicity in many toxicology assays. This is believed to be related to the DNA-binding properties of styrene-7,8-oxide (SO), a major metabolite of styrene. In this review, we have summarized knowledge on various aspects of styrene genotoxicity, especially in order to understand the formation and removal of primary DNA lesions, and the usefulness of biomarkers for risk assessment. Biological significances of specific DNA adducts and their role in the cascade of genotoxic events are discussed. Links between markers of external and internal exposure are evaluated, as well as metabolic aspects leading to the formation of DNA adducts and influencing biomarkers of biological effect. Finally, we suggest a design of a population study, which may contribute to our understanding genotoxic events in the exposure either to single xenobiotic or complex mixture.