A growing number of human tumor antigens have been described that can be recognized by cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) in a major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I-restricted fashion. Serological screening of cDNA expression libraries, SEREX, has recently been shown to provide another route for defining immunogenic human tumor antigens. The detection of antibody responses against known CTL-defined tumor antigens, e.g., MAGE-1 and tyrosinase, raised the question whether antibody and CTL responses against a defined tumor antigen can occur simultaneously in a single patient. In this paper, we report on a melanoma patient with a high-titer antibody response against the "cancer-testis" antigen NY-ESO-1. Concurrently, a strong MHC class I-restricted CTL reactivity against the autologous NY-ESO-1-positive tumor cell line was found. A stable CTL line (NW38-IVS-1) was established from this patient that reacted with autologous melanoma cells and with allogeneic human histocompatibility leukocyte antigen (HLA)-A2(-), NY-ESO-1-positive, but not NY-ESO-1-negative, melanoma cells. Screening of NY-ESO-1 transfectants with NW38-IVS-1 revealed NY-ESO-1 as the relevant CTL target presented by HLA-A2. Computer calculation identified 26 peptides with HLA-A2-binding motifs encoded by NY-ESO-1. Of these, three peptides were efficiently recognized by NW38-IVS-1. Thus, we show that antigen-specific humoral and cellular immune responses against human tumor antigens may occur simultaneously. In addition, our analysis provides a general strategy for identifying the CTL-recognizing peptides of tumor antigens initially defined by autologous antibody.