BACKGROUND Surgical management of large-angle infantile esotropia and decompensated microtropia has been controversially debated. There seems to be a relative bias against surgery on more than two horizontal muscles to avoid overcorrections. In our study we report on the sensory and motor outcomes after three horizontal muscle surgery. Furthermore we aim to suggest a table to guide surgery amounts. PATIENTS AND METHODS This study was a retrospective interventional cohort of 27 patients (16 female, 11 male; mean age 7.9 [years], ranging from 1 to 27 [years]) with infantile esotropia and decompensated microtropia who underwent three horizontal muscle surgery (bilateral medial rectus muscle recession and lateral rectus muscle plication) between 2005 and 2013. RESULTS Preoperative deviation in primary position measured 30.2 [°] (mean; range 21.9 to 48.0). Postoperatively esotropia was significantly reduced to 2.6 [°] (mean; range -16.7 to 16.7). After six months deviation measured 5.5 [°] (mean, range -14.1 to 21.9). An effect of 1.63°/mm was calculated for the combined three muscle surgery. CONCLUSIONS For the correction of large-angle infantile esotropia and decompensated microtropia three horizontal muscle surgery is associated with a high success rate. Only a very low rate of consecutive exotropia does occur.