This paper addresses consequences of exposure to violence and trauma. Traumata are defined as events with an extraordinary threat or catastrophic extent. Beside Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), affected people may develop Complex PTSD, Prolonged Grief Disorder or Adjustment Disorder as direct consequences of exposure with extreme stress. Indirect trauma-related disorders are amongst others Major Depression, Substance Dependency and Personality Disorders. These disorders develop often comorbid to PTSD. The likelihood to develop a PTSD at one point during the life course is 1-4 % in Germany. A PTSD is diagnosed if for any length of time the traumatic situation is re-experienced (e.g. in pictures or nightmares), potential triggers are avoided, emotional reactivity is numb and a permanent hyperarousal is experienced. The intensity, the duration and the frequency of traumatic experiences as well as the lack of social support after the trauma are important risk factors for the development of a PTSD. In the last two decades successful treatment approaches for PTSD have been developed. The main focus of all evidence-based treatment approaches is the exposure in sensu of the traumatic experiences. Behavioral therapy approaches have shown to be most effective in the treatment of PTSD. A better understanding of the consequences of exposure to violence and trauma may help us to identify people at risk for developing trauma-related disorders already at an early stage.