BACKGROUND Survival and success rates of tooth transplantations even after long follow-up periods have been shown to be very high. Nevertheless, it is important to analyse factors potentially influencing these rates. The aim of this study was to assess the influence on success of potential factors. METHODS The research was based on a retrospective analysis of clinical and radiological data from a sample of 59 subjects (75 transplanted teeth). The follow-up period varied from 0.44 to 12.28 years (mean 3.95 years). Success rates were calculated and depicted with Kaplan-Meier plots. Log-rank tests were used to analyse the effect of root development stage, apex width, the use of enamel matrix proteins or the surgeon on success of transplantations. RESULTS Results for success of premolar transplantations were comparable with already published data, while molars performed worse than shown in other studies. The surgeon performing the transplantation (p = 0.001) and tooth type (p ≤ 0.001) were significantly associated with transplantation success. Use of enamel matrix proteins (p = 0.10), root development stage (p = 0.13), the recipient area (p = 0.48) and apex width (p = 0.59) were not significantly associated with success. CONCLUSIONS Molar transplantations were not as successful as premolar transplantations; however, success rates varied greatly depending on the surgeon's experience. The use of enamel matrix proteins as well as root development stage, the recipient area and apex width did not show significant associations with success of tooth transplantations.