This study examined the role of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms of re-experience, avoidance, and hyperarousal in the relationship between different types of trauma and alcohol use disorders (AUD). We used data from 731 trauma-exposed individuals who participated in the first wave of the PsyCoLaus-study. Trauma characteristics were assessed relatively to the occurrence of lifetime PTSD symptoms and AUD. The results suggest that lifetime and childhood sexual abuse as well as overall childhood trauma were directly linked to AUD and PTSD symptoms, in particular to avoidance symptoms. From single symptom clusters PTSD avoidance was found to specifically mediate the trauma-AUD pathway. Both childhood and sexual trauma strongly contribute to the comorbidity of PTSD and AUD and avoidance-type symptoms appear to play a central role in maintaining this association. Hence, the alleviation of avoidance symptoms might be an important target for therapeutic intervention among victims of sexual abuse before specific addiction treatment is initiated.