The recent convergence of high-dimensional molecular datasets with small-molecule inhibitor pipelines allows for selective targeting of aberrantly regulated pathways in many cancer types. But intra-tumor heterogeneity, paradoxical activation, intrinsic or acquired therapeutic resistance, and non-linear pathway interactions confound most simple targeting strategies(Widmer et al., 2015). For instance, MAPK signaling is activated by hot-spot mutations in BRAF, which are found in about 40-50% of melanoma cases. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.