The prevalence of the behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) is very high in dementia patients. Alterations in multiple neurotransmitter systems are involved in the pathogenesis of BPSD. These symptoms complicate the therapy and outcome. Because of multimorbidity and polpharmacy the therapy of BPSD is difficult and needs continuous clinical observation of the patients. Non-pharmacological interventions must be the first choice of therapy before medication and may accompany the pharmacological treatment. Several non-pharmacological interventions are available and summarized in the following therapy recommendations of the Swiss medical societies. Pharmacological interventions are often accompanied by severe adverse events in dementia patients. Their use must be limited in time and quantity. A critical survey of pharmacological therapy options in dementia is necessary.