Description: New USPSTF recommendation on screening for vitamin D deficiency in adults. Methods: The USPSTF reviewed the evidence on screening for and treatment of vitamin D deficiency, including the benefits and harms of screening and early treatment. Population: This recommendation applies to community-dwelling, nonpregnant adults aged 18 years or older who are seen in primary care settings and are not known to have signs or symptoms of vitamin D deficiency or conditions for which vitamin D treatment is recommended. Recommendation: The USPSTF concludes that the current evidence is insufficient to assess the balance of benefits and harms of screening for vitamin D deficiency in asymptomatic adults. (I statement) The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) makes recommendations about the effectiveness of specific preventive care services for patients without related signs or symptoms. It bases its recommendations on the evidence of both the benefits and harms of the service and an assessment of the balance. The USPSTF does not consider the costs of providing a service in this assessment. The USPSTF recognizes that clinical decisions involve more considerations than evidence alone. Clinicians should understand the evidence but individualize decision making to the specific patient or situation. Similarly, the USPSTF notes that policy and coverage decisions involve considerations in addition to the evidence of clinical benefits and harms.