To perform a long term follow-up after endovascular brachytherapy (EVBT) and balloon angioplasty (PTA) regarding vessel patency and diameter. EVBT had been successfully used to decrease restenosis in short term, but long term data are lacking. Participants of a randomized study comparing EVBT and balloon angioplasty alone were invited for follow-up examination ten years after intervention. Using a standardized protocol measurement of the patency and vessel diameter was performed of femoral and popliteal arteries. 44 patients were included, 21 had been treated with EVBT and 23 had received PTA alone. Target lesion patency was similar between the two groups (90.5% vs. 87.0%). Vessel diameter of the target lesion was significantly greater in the EVBT group (6.4 mm, range 3.9-9.9) compared to the controls (5.0 mm, range 3.1-7.4; p = 0.002). Ten years after EVBT of femoro-popliteal arteries vessel diameter is significantly increased whereas patency rate is not different compared to angioplasty alone.