PURPOSE: To evaluate serial apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) measurements of bone metastases in prostate cancer to determine whether antiandrogen resistance can be detected and time to progression estimated.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) was performed at 1.5T in nine patients with treatment-naïve metastatic prostate cancer (20 lesions) before antiandrogen treatment, after 1, 2, and 3 months of treatment, and thereafter every 4 months over 31 months or until antiandrogen resistance was detected. Tumor volumes were stable over time. Time courses of the ADCs when averaged over entire lesions and on functional diffusion maps (fDMs) were analyzed using marginal linear model (MLM) analysis.
RESULTS: Starting at 1 month, MLM analysis revealed decreasing mean ADCs (P = 0.001) over time. Simultaneously, the percentage of voxels with significantly higher ADCs decreased (P = 0.004), whereas the percentage of voxels with significantly lower ADCs increased (P < 0.001) on fDMs. Both mean ADCs (P = 0.042) and percentages of voxels with significantly higher ADCs on fDMs (P = 0.039) decreased more rapidly over time in patients with a shorter progression-free interval (PFI). Likewise, higher (P = 0.001) and more rapidly increasing (P = 0.002) percentages of voxels with significantly lower ADCs on fDMs were associated with a shorter PFI.
CONCLUSION: The results of our pilot study suggest that the evolution of ADCs over time may permit early identification of antiandrogen resistance in bone metastases. J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2015.