2-Methoxyestradiol (2-ME), a metabolite of estradiol with little affinity for estrogen receptors, inhibits proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells; however, the molecular mechanisms underlying this effect are incompletely understood. Our previous work shows that 2-ME inhibits initiation (blocks phosphorylation of ERK and Akt) and progression (reduces cyclin expression and increases expression of cyclin inhibitors) of the mitogenic pathway and interferes with mitosis (disrupts tubulin organization). Because the RhoA/ROCK1 pathway (RhoA → ROCK1 → myosin phosphatase targeting subunit → myosin light chain) is involved in cytokinesis, herein we tested the concept that 2-ME also blocks the RhoA/ROCK1 pathway. Because of the potential importance of 2-ME for preventing/treating vascular diseases, experiments were conducted in female human aortic vascular smooth muscle cells. Microarray transcriptional profiling suggested an effect of 2-ME on the RhoA/ROCK1 pathway. Indeed, 2-ME blocked mitogen-induced GTP-bound RhoABC expression and membrane-bound RhoA, suggesting interference with the activation of RhoA. 2-ME also reduced ROCK1 expression, suggesting reduced production of the primary downstream signaling kinase of the RhoA pathway. Moreover, 2-ME inhibited RhoA/ROCK1 pathway downstream signaling, including phosphorylated myosin phosphatase targeting subunit and myosin light chain; the ROCK1 inhibitor H-1152 mimicked these effects of 2-ME; both 2-ME and H-1152 blocked cytokinesis. 2-ME also reduced the expression of tissue factor, yet another downstream signaling component of the RhoA/ROCK1 pathway. We conclude that 2-ME inhibits the pathway RhoA → ROCK1 → myosin phosphatase targeting subunit → myosin light chain, and this likely contributes to the reduced cytokinesis in 2-ME treated HASMCs.