Endometriosis, a painful disorder associated with infertility, is estimated to occur in approximately 7–10% of reproductive age women. Although endometriosis is considered as an estrogen-dependent disease, the role of estrogen metabolites via receptor-independent mechanisms has not yet been comprehensively clarified. In the present study, growth studies were performed comparing the effect of estradiol (E2), estrogen metabolites, that is, 2-hydroxyestradiol (2-OHE2) and 2-methoxyestradiol (2-ME), as well as estrogen-receptor-independent mechanisms using the estrogen receptor antagonist fulvestrant, on cell proliferation of endometriotic cells. The estrogen metabolites 2-OHE2 and 2-ME inhibited cell growth in a dose-dependent manner in pharmacological doses. Lower concentrations of 2-OHE2 had a stimulating effect on cell proliferation while pharmacologic doses exerted an antimitogenic effect. The effects on cell growth were at least partially receptor-independent, as demonstrated by simultaneous receptor antagonization with fulvestrant. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that in pharmacological doses the estrogen metabolites 2-ME and 2-OHE2 show inhibiting effects on the proliferation of endometriotic cells and may be promising substances for the treatment of endometriosis.