Chemokines regulate proliferation and migration of various types of normal stem and progenitor cells, including precursor cells of neuroectodermal origin. Based on this it is conceivable that the established role of chemokines in cancer cell proliferation and organ-specific metastasis might also be associated with stem cell-like cells present in the tumor. Such cancer stem cells (CSCs) represent a small subpopulation of tumor cells that are thought to initiate and sustain tumor formation. More recently, characteristics of stem cells have also been observed in metastatic cancer cells, and it has been suggested that CSCs might play a crucial role in the metastatic process as such. Intriguingly, first evidence has been provided that the metastatic spread of specific CSCs is driven by chemokine signaling. Thus it is possible that chemokine-mediated CSC regulation might be a general feature of metastasis formation.