Anxiety disorders are widespread in childhood and adolescence but not all anxieties need medical treatment. For example, anxieties can be a feature of normal development and shyness can simply be a character trait and not necessarily indicative of an illness. On the other hand the actual anxiety disorders are characterized by significant and enduring impairment that limit the normal development of a child. These are the most commonly occurring psychiatric disorders in childhood and adolescence. Included in this group of disorders are separation anxiety, specific phobias, social phobia, generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, agoraphobia, posttraumatic stress disorder and also more recently selective mutism. Multimodal methods are required for the diagnosis, involving behavioral observation, diagnostic interviews, symptom diaries and self-assessment rating questionnaires. Preventative measures are possible. The focus of behavioral therapeutic treatment methods is on confrontation with the situations inducing anxiety.