There is substantial comparative and growing experimental evidence that the competition for fertilization among sperm from different males can drive variation in male reproductive investments. However, less is known about the extent of natural variation in these investments relative to environmental variables affecting resource availability and mating system dynamics, which would allow insights into the mechanisms shaping reproductive allocation. Here, we studied interpopulation variation in male investments in testis size and sperm length across 25 populations of the Asian grass frog Fejervarya limnocharis along a 1550-km latitudinal and 1403-m altitudinal transect in China.We found relative testis mass and sperm length, male somatic condition, and the male/female sex ratio to increase with elevation but not latitude or longitude. Our results suggest that environmental variation may underlie local adaptations to reproductive investments among natural populations, mediated by differences in the availability of both resources and sexual partners (including the resulting male–male competition). These findings contrast with previous predictions that increasing latitude and/or elevation should lead to declining reproductive investments in male anurans due to shortening breeding seasons, declining resource availability, and lowering (rather than increasing) male/female sex ratios. We discuss these species differences in the context of differential resource allocation strategies, breeding ecology, and patterns of male–male competition. These differences show the need for future work on reproductive investments in anurans beyond the few model systems and for potential extension of the theoretical framework to species with different mating systems and strategies.