The MiT family of translocation-associated renal cell carcinomas comprise approximately 40 % of renal cell carcinomas in young patients but only up to 4 % of renal cell carcinomas in adult patients. The Xp11.2 translocation-associated tumors are the most frequent and were included in the 2004 World Health Organization (WHO) classification. They contain a fusion of the TFE3 gene with ASPSCR1, PRCC, NONO, SPFQ or CLTC resulting in an immunohistochemically detectable nuclear overexpression of TFE3. The Xp11.2 translocation-associated renal cell carcinomas are characterized by ample clear cytoplasm, papillary architecture and abundant psammoma bodies. The TFEB translocation-associated renal cell carcinomas are much rarer and show a biphasic architecture. Fluorescence in situ hybridization permits the detection of a translocation by means of a break apart probe for the TFE3 and TFEB genes and is recommended for the diagnosis of renal cell carcinomas in patients under 30 years of age. The TFE3 and TFEB translocation-associated tumors are classified as MiT family translocation carcinomas in the new WHO classification.The rare renal cell carcinomas harboring an ALK rearrangement with fusion to VCL in young patients with sickle cell trait show a characteristic morphology and are listed in the new WHO classification as a provisional entity.