Nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kappaB) plays an important role in the transcriptional regulation of genes involved in inflammation and cell survival. Transcriptional coactivators that methylate histones become increasingly important. Recently, we provided evidence that coactivator-associated arginine methyltransferase 1 (CARM1) is a transcriptional coactivator of NF-kappaB and functions as a promoter-specific regulator of NF-kappaB recruitment to chromatin. Here, we show that protein arginine methyltransferase 1 (PRMT1) synergistically coactivates NF-kappaB-dependent gene expression at the macrophage inflammatory protein 2 and human immunodeficiency virus 1 long terminal repeat promoters in concert with the transcriptional coactivators p300/CREB binding protein, CARM1, and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1. PRMT1 formed a complex with poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 and NF-kappaB in vivo and interacted directly with the NF-kappaB subunit p65 in vitro. The methyltransferase activity of PRMT1 appeared essential for its coactivator function in context with CARM1 and p300/CREB binding protein. These results suggest that the cooperative action between PRMT1 and CARM1 is required for NF-kappaB-dependent gene expression.