Background Papillomaviruses can cause proliferative skin lesions ranging from benign hyperplasia to squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). However, asymptomatic infection is also possible. Several groups have detected Felis domesticus Papillomavirus type 2 (FdPV2) DNA in association with feline Bowenoid in situ carcinoma (BISC). Therefore, a causative connection has been suggested. However, the knowledge about FdPV2 epidemiology is limited. The aim of this study was to describe the genoprevalence and seroprevalence of FdPV2 in healthy cats. For this purpose an FdPV2-specific quantitative (q)PCR assay was developed and used to analyse Cytobrush samples collected from 100 dermatologically healthy cats. Moreover, an ELISA was established to test the sera obtained from the same cats for antibodies against the major capsid protein (L1) of FdPV2. Results The genoprevalence of FdPV2 was to 98 %. Surprisingly, the quantities of viral DNA detected in some samples from the healthy cats exceeded the amounts detected in control samples from feline BISC lesions. The seroprevalence was much lower, amounting to 22 %. The concentrations of antibodies against FdPV2 were relatively low in healthy cats, whereas they were very high in control cats with BISC. Conclusion These observations suggest that FdPV2 is highly prevalent, even among healthy cats. However, cats that carry it on their skin mount in most instances no antibody response. It might be hypothesized that FdPV2 is only rarely productively replicating or its replication is only rarely exposed to the immune system.