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Detection of Echinococcus multilocularis by MC-PCR: evaluation of diagnostic sensitivity and specificity without gold standard


Wahlström, Helene; Comin, Arianna; Isaksson, Mats; Deplazes, Peter (2016). Detection of Echinococcus multilocularis by MC-PCR: evaluation of diagnostic sensitivity and specificity without gold standard. Infection Ecology & Epidemiology, 6:30173.

Abstract

INTRODUCTION: A semi-automated magnetic capture probe-based DNA extraction and real-time PCR method (MC-PCR), allowing for a more efficient large-scale surveillance of Echinococcus multilocularis occurrence, has been developed. The test sensitivity has previously been evaluated using the sedimentation and counting technique (SCT) as a gold standard. However, as the sensitivity of the SCT is not 1, test characteristics of the MC-PCR was also evaluated using latent class analysis, a methodology not requiring a gold standard.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Test results, MC-PCR and SCT, from a previous evaluation of the MC-PCR using 177 foxes shot in the spring (n=108) and autumn 2012 (n=69) in high prevalence areas in Switzerland were used. Latent class analysis was used to estimate the test characteristics of the MC-PCR. Although it is not the primary aim of this study, estimates of the test characteristics of the SCT were also obtained.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: This study showed that the sensitivity of the MC-PCR was 0.88 [95% posterior credible interval (PCI) 0.80-0.93], which was not significantly different than the SCT, 0.83 (95% PCI 0.76-0.88), which is currently considered as the gold standard. The specificity of both tests was high, 0.98 (95% PCI 0.94-0.99) for the MC-PCR and 0.99 (95% PCI 0.99-1) for the SCT. In a previous study, using fox scats from a low prevalence area, the specificity of the MC-PCR was higher, 0.999% (95% PCI 0.997-1). One reason for the lower estimate of the specificity in this study could be that the MC-PCR detects DNA from infected but non-infectious rodents eaten by foxes. When using MC-PCR in low prevalence areas or areas free from the parasite, a positive result in the MC-PCR should be regarded as a true positive.
CONCLUSION: The sensitivity of the MC-PCR (0.88) was comparable to the sensitivity of SCT (0.83).

Abstract

INTRODUCTION: A semi-automated magnetic capture probe-based DNA extraction and real-time PCR method (MC-PCR), allowing for a more efficient large-scale surveillance of Echinococcus multilocularis occurrence, has been developed. The test sensitivity has previously been evaluated using the sedimentation and counting technique (SCT) as a gold standard. However, as the sensitivity of the SCT is not 1, test characteristics of the MC-PCR was also evaluated using latent class analysis, a methodology not requiring a gold standard.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Test results, MC-PCR and SCT, from a previous evaluation of the MC-PCR using 177 foxes shot in the spring (n=108) and autumn 2012 (n=69) in high prevalence areas in Switzerland were used. Latent class analysis was used to estimate the test characteristics of the MC-PCR. Although it is not the primary aim of this study, estimates of the test characteristics of the SCT were also obtained.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: This study showed that the sensitivity of the MC-PCR was 0.88 [95% posterior credible interval (PCI) 0.80-0.93], which was not significantly different than the SCT, 0.83 (95% PCI 0.76-0.88), which is currently considered as the gold standard. The specificity of both tests was high, 0.98 (95% PCI 0.94-0.99) for the MC-PCR and 0.99 (95% PCI 0.99-1) for the SCT. In a previous study, using fox scats from a low prevalence area, the specificity of the MC-PCR was higher, 0.999% (95% PCI 0.997-1). One reason for the lower estimate of the specificity in this study could be that the MC-PCR detects DNA from infected but non-infectious rodents eaten by foxes. When using MC-PCR in low prevalence areas or areas free from the parasite, a positive result in the MC-PCR should be regarded as a true positive.
CONCLUSION: The sensitivity of the MC-PCR (0.88) was comparable to the sensitivity of SCT (0.83).

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Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:05 Vetsuisse Faculty > Institute of Parasitology
04 Faculty of Medicine > Institute of Parasitology
Dewey Decimal Classification:570 Life sciences; biology
610 Medicine & health
600 Technology
Language:English
Date:2016
Deposited On:05 Aug 2016 07:23
Last Modified:24 Sep 2019 21:56
Publisher:Co-Action Publishing
ISSN:2000-8686
OA Status:Gold
Free access at:PubMed ID. An embargo period may apply.
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.3402/iee.v6.30173
PubMed ID:26968153

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