Who does not know them? One bearded like a pirate, one knighted by the Queen, and one of noble spirit. United in the fight for truth and honor! No, this is not about Alexandre Dumas’ characters Porthos, Athos, and Aramis, well-known from the famous novel The Three Musketeers.1 This is about the most recent awardees of the Albert Lasker Basic Medical Research Award, the three protagonists of hypoxia research Gregg Semenza, Sir Peter Ratcliffe, and Bill Kaelin. The recent bestowal of the Lasker Prize is just another hallmark in a long list of recognitions of the major achievements by these three outstanding colleagues. What major victories in the battle against the unknowns in hypoxia research did our three heroes achieve?