A panel of experts from several European countries has accomplished a systematic review of published and unpublished data on the use of long-acting medications in ADHD and hyperkinetic disorder. Based on this analysis detailed recommendations about the use of these drugs in practice have been developed: (1) Long-acting preparations should be licensed and used; (2) They should not completely replace short-acting drugs (which will be the initial treatment for many children in view of cost and the greater flexibility of dosing). Individual clinical choices are necessary. (3) Both ATX and extended-release stimulants should be available. In addition, detailed recommendations will be made with regard to the criteria to be applied in choosing a preparation for the individual patient.