Theoretically, administration of inhaled corticosteroids may allow for beneficial effects on the pulmonary system of infants with evolving or established bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) with a lower risk of undesirable side effects compared to systemic corticosteroids. However, before deciding whether to use inhaled corticosteroids for BPD in routine clinical practice, the available randomized study data need to be considered. Currently published systematic reviews from the Cochrane Collaboration conclude that there is no role for inhaled corticosteroids in neither prevention nor treatment of BPD outside clinical trials. In contrast multiple observational studies indicate that a large number of preterm infants in Europe, North America and East Asia receive inhaled corticosteroids for this indication in routine clinical care. This discrepancy between evidence and practice prompted a large randomized controlled trial (RCT) investigating the role of inhaled budesonide for the prevention of BPD which was recently published and showed a significant reduction in the incidence of BPD. However, the primary outcome (a composite of death or BPD at 36 weeks postmenstrual age) was only of borderline significance as a result of a non-significant trend to increased mortality in the budesonide group. Results of the long-term follow up from this study should be considered when defining the future role of inhaled corticosteroids for BPD. Additionally, updated systematic reviews will help to determine whether the observed mortality difference between the two comparison groups represents truth or artifact.