Human cystic echinococcosis (CE) has been eliminated or significantly reduced as a public health problem in several previously highly endemic regions. This has been achieved by the long-term application of prevention and control measures primarily targeted to deworming dogs, health education, meat inspection, and effective surveillance in livestock and human populations. Human CE, however, remains a serious neglected zoonotic disease in many resource-poor pastoral regions. The incidence of human alveolar echinococcosis (AE) has increased in continental Europe and is a major public health problem in parts of Eurasia. Better understanding of wildlife ecology for fox and small mammal hosts has enabled targeted anthelmintic baiting of fox populations and development of spatially explicit models to predict population dynamics for key intermediate host species and human AE risk in endemic landscapes. Challenges that remain for echinococcosis control include effective intervention in resource-poor communities, better availability of surveillance tools, optimal application of livestock vaccination, and management and ecology of dog and wildlife host populations.