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Sex-dependent immune responses to infant vaccination: an individual participant data meta-analysis of antibody and memory B cells


Voysey, Merryn; Barker, Charlotte I S; Snape, Matthew D; Kelly, Dominic F; Trück, Johannes; Pollard, Andrew J (2016). Sex-dependent immune responses to infant vaccination: an individual participant data meta-analysis of antibody and memory B cells. Vaccine, 34(14):1657-64.

Abstract

BACKGROUND
Biological sex can be an important source of variation in infection and immunity and sex-dependent differences in immune response to vaccination have been reported in some studies.
METHODS
We conducted an individual participant data meta-analysis of vaccine trials from one research centre, in which vaccines were administered to children under three years of age and immunological parameters measured. Log-transformed antigen-specific antibody and memory B cell results were meta-analysed and differences between girls and boys reported as geometric mean ratios.
RESULTS
Antibody and memory B cell data were available from nine trials and 2378 children. Statistically significant differences between girls and boys were observed for diphtheria toxoid, capsular group A, W, and Y meningococcal, and pneumococcal vaccines. No sex-differences were observed for responses to Haemophilus influenzae type b, capsular group C meningococcal or tetanus toxoid vaccines.
CONCLUSIONS
In young children, immune responses to vaccines were consistently higher or equivalent in girls compared with boys. In no instance were responses in boys significantly higher than girls. While these data do not indicate differences in protection conferred by immunisation in boys and girls, they do support further consideration of biological sex in planning of clinical trials of vaccines.

Abstract

BACKGROUND
Biological sex can be an important source of variation in infection and immunity and sex-dependent differences in immune response to vaccination have been reported in some studies.
METHODS
We conducted an individual participant data meta-analysis of vaccine trials from one research centre, in which vaccines were administered to children under three years of age and immunological parameters measured. Log-transformed antigen-specific antibody and memory B cell results were meta-analysed and differences between girls and boys reported as geometric mean ratios.
RESULTS
Antibody and memory B cell data were available from nine trials and 2378 children. Statistically significant differences between girls and boys were observed for diphtheria toxoid, capsular group A, W, and Y meningococcal, and pneumococcal vaccines. No sex-differences were observed for responses to Haemophilus influenzae type b, capsular group C meningococcal or tetanus toxoid vaccines.
CONCLUSIONS
In young children, immune responses to vaccines were consistently higher or equivalent in girls compared with boys. In no instance were responses in boys significantly higher than girls. While these data do not indicate differences in protection conferred by immunisation in boys and girls, they do support further consideration of biological sex in planning of clinical trials of vaccines.

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Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:04 Faculty of Medicine > University Children's Hospital Zurich > Medical Clinic
Dewey Decimal Classification:610 Medicine & health
Language:English
Date:29 March 2016
Deposited On:22 Mar 2019 10:54
Last Modified:22 Mar 2019 10:56
Publisher:Elsevier
ISSN:0264-410X
OA Status:Closed
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.vaccine.2016.02.036
PubMed ID:26920472

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