One of the earliest challenges for ecologists has been to study the impact of invasive species on microbial communities. Although bacteria are fundamental in biological processes, current knowledge on invasion effects by aquatic non-pathogenic bacteria is still limited. Using pure cultures of diverse planktonic bacteria as model organisms at two different carbon concentration levels, we tested the response of an assembled community to the invasion by Limnohabitans planktonicus, an opportunistic bacterium, successful in freshwaters. The invader, introduced at the early stationary growth phase of the resident community, caused a strong decrement of the abundance of the dominant species. This was due to competition for nutrients and a potential allelopathic interaction. Simultaneously, resident species formerly unable to successfully compete within the community, thus potentially exposed to competitive exclusion, increased their abundances. The overall result of the invasion was preservation of species diversity, the higher the lower was the substrate content available. Our study provides new insights into bacterial invasions, offering an alternative interpretation of invasions for community ecology.